literature review, ethics pt. 4


For this literature review, I defined the metrics on the last 30 days of the football world cup; to find the beacons.


“ethics, group norms and tattoos” CLICK HERE

“Clement and Augustine on Psalm xix, ethics pt. 2” CLICK HERE
only possible to humble faith, Micah 6.8 | ethics, pt. 3 CLICK HERE

I. reveal sin to reveal our need for salvation

In Romans VII.7a, Paul questions the Law. He’s basically asking, is the law just a set of rules that’s too hard to follow? So is it evil? He responds with “Of course not! and dives into the aim of the law.[1]

“The apostle abstains from all criticism of the law.… What praise we get from the law, that by it the latent presence of sin becomes manifest! It is not the law that has led me astray, but sin.[2]

The Law exposes sin. “I knew sin only by the law” (Romans VII.7b).

ia Augustine and Jérôme both address the issue

“The law was givenen not to introduce sin nor to eradicate it but simply to make it known; by the demonstration of sin to give to the human soul the sense of its guilt instead of the assurance of its innocence.[3]

“If the commandments are given to be obeyed, then man can be without sin; if he is, by his creation, such that he should be a sinner, then it is God, and not he, who is the author of sin. To the argument that sacrifices are prescribed for sins of ignorance, he responds by appealing from the Old Testament to the New, which leads to a discussion (2, 3) of St. Paul’s description of the conflict with sin, in Romans vii. Paul, it is said, speaks not like a sinner, but like a man, and thus confesses the sinfulness of mankind. That men are without rooted vice is possible; that they can be sinless is not. This leads the Augustine, Atticus, resuming his list of testimonies, to the fact that although men are found who are righteous by avoiding wickedness (κακία [wickedness]), but no one is without sin (ἀναμάρτητος [sinless]).”[4]

ib Pelagius and other teachers speak of attaining wholeness or holiness without acknowledging sin, or original guilt.

Church leaders counter and continue to do so, citing the law. Whether they are talking directly about the Mosaic law or the law of Christ is beyond me, but I would offer an estimate, we are discussing a mixture of the two.

Sure, they’re both Latin Fathers, but Augustine doesn’t even speak Greek.

Jerome founds the first abbey near Bethlehem, and a popular notion is that the abbey is for women only. Later, from what I have read so far about Julian of Norwich and the nunnery, even she reports to someone like a bishop, vicar parochial or monsignor. Nevertheless, do his writings influence Britain and the Continent for an eternity when reform is needed? This is exactly where it’s heading as Pelagius seems to be from the same region. So Augustin, Jerome and maybe even Julien from Norwich come up with a fix.


ii. Paul is able to exemplify the energy of the law to reveal sin

“I knew sin only by the law, and I knew not what it is to covet, except that the law said, ‘Thou shalt not covet’” (verse 7c).

To know (ginosco, sp?) is somewhat of a neutral term, despite the other heresy that Clement of Alexandria (philosopher and Christian leader) viciously debated earlier. He may be a Greek father of Markian line of apostolic succession, or possibly from the Ethiopian in Acts VIII, possibly a precursor to the Copts.

To read some of Clement’s work in tandem with Augustine, please see “Clement and Augustine on Psalm xix, ethics pt. 2” CLICK HERE

iii. this review of the literature proves that I am certainly not the Latin-Greek Father Jerome, or even that Tertullian is

Nevertheless, I would like to offer a scriptural reference on when covetousness is used in a very good way, and I hope it does not get lost in translation.

There are many times in the Hebrew Bible, in the intertestamental period and in the Talmuds where the term “zeal” is used. Zeal often denotes jealousy of our God, who can be very jealous or greedy.

Those who are close to Christ remember it, even though it is one of the catalysts towards the beginning of the Christic Event (John II.17). It’s not a topic I really care to discuss, again, that’s beyond me.

iv. Noah and Hammurabi

The Noeic covenant may or may not have been established in some type of mountaintop experience. After all, the waters had receded at some point, and perhaps some of the wood was reused for the sacrifice involved in cutting a wedding ring, for shelter, for tools, stalls, etc. The Noeic Covenant continues to have an impact on the law, not only for those who read the surrounding columns or commentaries, on the subject.

Hammurabi, perhaps a little to the southeast (who knows) lays down one of the grandest and oldest forms of a code of ethics, unless you count the Bodhisatva path. It is one of the strictest disciplines in its original form, not necessarily considered a religion at the very beginning. In fact, one of the earliest forms of the Golden Rule is found in some of the earliest writings, the one that Jesus actually quotes cataphically. Moreover, the earliest legends of Buddha reveal something like a rule of dry living (i.e. the writings of St. Benedict). It is far from popularizers. In government/ethics classes, I had to read parts of Hammurabi’s code, maybe all of it, even though it’s over 200 laws.

In the law of Hammurabi, there is something similar to the 12 ways of the Buddha, which is similar to the golden rule cited by Christ. Hammurabi’s Law, like the Noahaïque Alliance, continues to impact the law.

v. Noah and Hammurabi seem to have mirror references in Mosaic Law

It is specifically about the Ten Commandments in a few places in the first five books of the Bible.

Is it possible that Moses (or Deuteronomy) had access to the growing Egyptian library, eventually becoming the great library of Alexandria, the region where Clement is eventually found?

Of course, I share these characters in order of appearance.

vi. Final considerations in this original literature review

vi.a what about Deuteronomy?

Is it possible that Deuteronomy is female, or maybe the first is Jochebed or Miriam, maybe someone assigned by Pharaoh’s daughter?

There is a theory that one or more anonymous general editors finalized some of the copies of the events.

vi.b what about the flood?

There seems to be growing global interest in cataclysmic flooding (dry lake beds at high altitudes, wadis in odd places, tracts of land given to monsoons, etc.).

Who knows what Gilgamesh thought about this?

vi.c law and ethics have influenced our grand narrative since the dawn of time, as have the correlated writings and testimonies of events

“So then the law is holy, and the commandment holy, just, and good.” (Romans VII.12)

A person or a community can begin to develop mores (pronounce moray eels, I think). There are many collaborative writings across all the eons.

Are they innate or external?

If various cultures throughout history have developed mores intuitively, then I would say they are innate, perhaps even endowed with humanity by the deadpan motor.

As people or a community develop mores, they articulate values, whether written down or not. There are customs like writing on the wall, and then there are unspoken truths. People learn it as they are accepted into the community (ie by learning about the role of different peoples in the community gathering). Some congregations are sold on the “one youth pastor” model of leadership, for example, or perhaps the “hatter” approach, unfortunately.

Then there is ethics, a little more formal. A sub-discipline of ethics might be law, but that knowledge is beyond my competence (pun intended).

vi.d again, ethics as seen in this series, has to do with christian moorings for the field in general is a great tool for a number of reasons. My grades for reading level are usually between 11th and college level, but I have seen one or two grad rankings with my material, including one or two literature reviews.


In fact, a typical literature review for me is a degree, maybe even like a AT in the corridors to discuss the thesis or dissertation she is finishing with the professors. There are Pentecostal leaders at SMU, for example, who were interested in those grades and my ability to advance to Texas, right across from the chapel office. I don’t know where you’re coming from, but some claim their state or community is the greatest. When I consider ethics and the law, I see people doing many wonderful things for the kingdom of God, but sometimes I feel like asking repeatedly, “Yeah, where are you going?

For this literature review, I defined the metrics on the last 30 days of the football world cup; to find the beacons.


Nan Palmero | 01.08.10 | Creative Commons

Candice Palmer with CGI | Tea Time, New Year | 2022


  1. To reference Scripture CLICK
  2. Tertullian, Against Marcion V.13
  3. Augustine, A Simplician on Various Issues I.1
  4. Jerome, Against the Pelagians II
  5. “Clement and Augustine on Psalm xix, ethics pt. 2″ CLICK


About Author

Comments are closed.