Zeligowski and the Wilno mutiny

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REMEMBER ME. Lucjan Zeligowski continued. During the war against Bolshevik Russia, being a personal friend of Polish Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, I was quickly promoted to general and given command of an operational group in his name, consisting of his 10th division and additional units, mainly of partisan origin. As such, I quickly became the commander of the entire Lithuanian-Belarusian front, operating in the Polesie region and the Pinsk Marshes.

During the Battle of Warsaw in 1920, my unit was attached to the Polish 3rd Army and took part in the pursuit of the fleeing Bolshevik and Soviet forces during the Battle of the Niemen.
In October 1920, as a native of the historic lands of Lithuania, I was chosen to command the 1st Lithuanian-Belarusian Infantry Division, consisting mainly of members of POWs, volunteers and partisans from the territory of Belarus and modern Lithuania.
After a staged mutiny on October 8, 1920, I defected with my unit and took control of the city of Vilnius and its region. The mutiny that bears my name will be remembered as the defining moment of my life. On October 12, I proclaimed the independence of the said region as the Republic of Central Lithuania with Wilno as its capital.
First a de facto military dictator, after parliamentary elections I handed over my powers to the newly elected parliament, which in turn decided to submit the region to Poland. (To be continued.)

CURIOUS. Ah our medicines and their powers. Primitive man viewed illness as divine punishment and healing as purification. Medicine and religion have been inextricably linked for centuries. You fell ill because you lost favor with a god and you regained that god’s grace and your health through physical and spiritual purging. This notion is reflected in the origin of our word “pharmacy” which comes from the Greek pharmakon, meaning “purification by purging”. Around 3500 BC. AD, the Sumerians of the Tigris-Euphrates Valley had developed virtually all of our modern methods of drug delivery. They used gargles, inhalations, suppositories, enemas, poultices, snuffs, decoctions, infusions, pills, lozenges, lotions, ointments, and plasters. The first catalog of medicines, or pharmacopoeia, was written at this time by an unknown Sumerian physician. Preserved in cuneiform writing on a single clay tablet are the names of a dozen medicines to treat ailments that still afflict us today. As a gargle, salt dissolved in water; as a general wound disinfectant, sour wine; as an astringent, potassium nitrate, obtained from nitrogenous waste products in urine. And to relieve fever, pulverized willow bark, the natural equivalent of aspirin. (To be continued.)

POLONUS POLISH PHILATELIC SOCIETY. The world’s leading philatelic organization dedicated to the study and promotion of Polish philately in the English language was established in 1939. Membership of Polonus is worldwide with an emphasis on education, research and service programs. In 2018, stamps were issued to commemorate various historical events and people. The 2.60 zl stamp was issued to mark the 100th anniversary of the end of the First World War, the 250th anniversary of the birth of Jedrzej Sniadecki, writer, chemist, physician and biologist, the 100th anniversary of the outbreak of the Wielkopolska Uprising and Polish Industrial Design also XXII National Philatelic Exhibition Poznan 2018.
In the September issue of Bulletin Polonus there is an interesting article – Post of Romanian – Occupation of Pokuttia by Ihor G. Kulczycky, MD. The article recounts the victorious cartel of the First World War and worries about a wave of Bolshevism spreading in Eastern Europe and Germany.
Join the Polonus Philatelic Society and learn about Poland’s postal history and some of the gems of Polish philately. Also from May 27-29, the Polonus has made arrangements with the organizers of the APS World Series of Stamp Shows to participate in the 2022 RMSS (Rocky Mountain Stamp Show, Denver). For more details see our website polonus.org.

MUSEUM CORNER. The Polish American Museum will host a Springtime Musical Concert on Sunday, May 22 at 3 p.m. This unique program will feature classical, contemporary, traditional and patriotic music performed by a talented young American artist of Polish descent. The master of ceremonies will be Dr. John Piotrowski. The doors of the Museum will open at 2 p.m. Admission to this concert will be $10 for adults and $5 for students. Refreshments will be served. The museum is located at 16 Belleview Ave., Port Washington. Directions and additional information at 516-883-6542. The museum is open Wednesday and Thursday from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. other days by appointment.

THINK. When a Roman politician went on a campaign, he made sure his toga was pristine white to make the best possible impression. The Latin word candidateus at first simply meant a “person dressed in white”, but later it took on the meaning that our word candidate has, an applicant for office. The root of candidatureus is recognized in our word incandescent which means “white and glowing” and in candide, for a candid person, in the figurative sense is white and pure, and therefore frank and honest.

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